In the reading Graphic Design The New Basics by Ellen Lupton , motion is a change that takes place in time. Motion can be implied or literal, any still image has implied motion or implied stasis. In animation there are several diverse ways in changing an image, such as scale, transparency, color, layer. It is important to have a style frame which serves as a template of the visual elements and their changes and things such as colors, typeface and other illustrative elements.
Implied motion: diagonal compositions or cropped elude to movement on a 2-Dimensional plane and an object centered or parallel appears to be stable and not moving.
Line: another element used to create movement a sketchy line in comparison to a very straight line reflects movement and dimensional curve lines project movement and depth.
Sequential time and connecting time and space: showing several images (rows, panels) and linking them either with a common point of connection.
Using repetition and transparency further implies movement.
Persistence of vision: the way our brain retains images and gives the illusion of movement as images appear rapidly in a sequence.
Frame: the smallest unit or a single still image.
Key-frames: are the fixed states; they are the first and the last frames of each short sequence of action.
Tweens: they are the in-between frames and allows smooth transition.
Change over time in an animation is done through the use of : changing position of an object, scale, color, shape and transparency.
Animating type is animated just like any graphical element but there is factors that need to be considered legibility and reading order. Words don't have to literally move but other transitions can happen such as fading in and out, flicker, change scale and color. The changes need to be down slowly to allow legibility, but need to take account that it can people will not wait for a really slow text and depending on the context it could add meaning and set the mood of the animation.
For planning an animation (just like we are doing as another element in our third project) a storyboard: visually summarize the key moments of an animation event, suggest the major changes of action. It contains notes about camera angles, soundtrack, timing, transitions, special effects.
Interactive graphics or logos are done through the use of code such as Flash, ActionScript, Java or Processing, through the use of behaviors.